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Discussion Starter #1
What are we recovering from?
Flow bench depression?
At 7000 rpm, how many times per second does the piston reach peak velocity?
Asking for a friend :)
 

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@ 7000 RPM you have 116 .667 RPS but only half of them are on the intake stroke so 58.333 times

Stan
 

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Never understood pressure recovery, unless you are talking replacing the depression of the lowering piston with atmospheric pressure. I always thought about it as velocity recovery once the air flow got past the valve.

But.

"Darin Morgan: "A properly shaped combustion chamber is a balance of pressure recovery, wet flow, and flame travel. ... The pressure recovery dynamic is simply the chamber shape being an extension of the valve seat angles, and letting the airflow decelerate at the proper rate once the valves open.May 4, 2010"
 

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" Pressure recovery" is what occurs in a venturi exducer, AKA carburetor throat, and intake manifold when the air velocity diminishes downstream of the restriction of the minor diameter of the venturi. 100 years ago the government funded aircraft carb research that produced NACA TR49 included a thorough study of venturi shapes and resulted in the now common designs of carburetors thereafter. Substantial effort focused on inducer and exducer angles to obtain the most efficient generation of the low pressure necessary for metering with maximum possible pressure recovery, so to have the highest available intake manifold pressure. Since the restriction of the valve and seat is a venturi of sorts, it is likely someone familiar with carburetors in the technical sense would use the term "pressure recovery" to describe exactly what it means.
 

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" Pressure recovery" is what occurs in a venturi exducer, AKA carburetor throat, and intake manifold when the air velocity diminishes downstream of the restriction of the minor diameter of the venturi. 100 years ago the government funded aircraft carb research that produced NACA TR49 included a thorough study of venturi shapes and resulted in the now common designs of carburetors thereafter. Substantial effort focused on inducer and exducer angles to obtain the most efficient generation of the low pressure necessary for metering with maximum possible pressure recovery, so to have the highest available intake manifold pressure. Since the restriction of the valve and seat is a venturi of sorts, it is likely someone familiar with carburetors in the technical sense would use the term "pressure recovery" to describe exactly what it means.
 

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I've often wondered what role inertia plays in filling an intake port after the valve closes. All of the subjects we have been discussing lately play a role too. Chamber efficiency, scavenge, header design, cam events.

If the intake port was developed to load a dense fuel charge it stands to reason that inertia after valve close will help the port recover upon the next IVO event.
 

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(P1xV1)/T1=(P2xV2)/T2


0. There is a game
1. You can't win.
2. You can't break even.
3. You can't even get out of the game

In the real world there is only "x" in the pot. P,V, and T all play the game, and think together they will go home with the pot, but all three have holes in their pockets. Our job is to make those holes as small as possible.
 

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it just slows the velocity coming from throat more gradually by controlling the area around the valve (i.e the chamber). think of a merge collector and divergent cone
 

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Discussion Starter #16
What I was thinking is.....while we get all focused on what the intake flows, on a flow bench at 28" depression....try and put in perspective...there is not much flow going on during the 720 degrees of rotation to complete one intake stroke, and during that one intake stroke, it happen 58 times a second at 7000 rpm.
Y'all, the intake valve opens 58 times a second. Any thoughts?
 

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Lets see now, 300 cfm / 60 = 5 cf/sec / 58 openings per sec. intake openings @ 7000 rpm = .09 cf per opening - 13% for fuel = about .08 cf. air per opening or about 1100 cuin. for a 8 cyl @ 7000 rpm.
 

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This is some piston demand vs port flow and piston speed for an old 500 cuin pro stock engine information from PipeMax.

Piston CFM Column = is the CFM @28in. the Engine really wants at 9450 RPM
Cyl Head CFM Column = is what you say the Engine is getting.
you are saying this by your Volumetric Efficiency Input

If you have no real Ve% Dyno Data , ... a good starting point is to :
Adjust the Volumetric Efficiency % Input until the Peak Cylinder Head CFM
matches your FlowBench CFM data at your Camshaft's max Valve Lift point.
Usually Peak Cylinder Head and Piston CFM Demand occurs 70 to 80 deg ATDC

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0.00 .00000 0.00 180.00
0.5 6.1 6.3 0.0001 101.2 0.03 .00001 0.15 179.35
1.0 12.1 12.5 0.0004 202.3 0.10 .00002 0.29 178.71
1.5 18.2 18.8 0.0008 303.4 0.23 .00003 0.44 178.06
2.0 24.3 25.0 0.0014 404.5 0.40 .00004 0.59 177.41
2.5 30.3 31.3 0.0022 505.5 0.63 .00004 0.74 176.76
3.0 36.4 37.5 0.0032 606.5 0.91 .00005 0.88 176.12
3.5 42.5 43.8 0.0044 707.4 1.24 .00006 1.03 175.47
4.0 48.5 50.0 0.0057 808.1 1.61 .00007 1.18 174.82
4.5 54.5 56.2 0.0072 908.8 2.04 .00008 1.32 174.18
5.0 60.6 62.5 0.0089 1009.4 2.52 .00009 1.47 173.53
5.5 66.6 68.7 0.0108 1109.9 3.05 .00010 1.62 172.88
6.0 72.6 74.9 0.0128 1210.2 3.63 .00011 1.76 172.24
6.5 78.6 81.1 0.0150 1310.3 4.25 .00011 1.91 171.59
7.0 84.6 87.3 0.0174 1410.3 4.93 .00012 2.06 170.94
7.5 90.6 93.4 0.0200 1510.1 5.66 .00013 2.20 170.30
8.0 96.6 99.6 0.0228 1609.7 6.44 .00014 2.35 169.65
8.5 102.6 105.7 0.0257 1709.1 7.27 .00015 2.49 169.01
9.0 108.5 111.9 0.0288 1808.3 8.14 .00016 2.64 168.36
9.5 114.5 118.0 0.0321 1907.2 9.07 .00017 2.78 167.72
10.0 120.4 124.1 0.0355 2005.9 10.05 .00018 2.93 167.07
10.5 126.3 130.2 0.0392 2104.4 11.07 .00019 3.07 166.43
11.0 132.2 136.3 0.0430 2202.6 12.15 .00019 3.22 165.78
11.5 138.1 142.3 0.0469 2300.5 13.27 .00020 3.36 165.14
12.0 143.9 148.4 0.0511 2398.1 14.44 .00021 3.51 164.49
12.5 149.8 154.4 0.0554 2495.4 15.66 .00022 3.65 163.85
13.0 155.6 160.4 0.0599 2592.4 16.93 .00023 3.80 163.20
13.5 161.4 166.4 0.0645 2689.0 18.25 .00024 3.94 162.56
14.0 167.2 172.3 0.0694 2785.3 19.61 .00025 4.08 161.92
14.5 172.9 178.3 0.0744 2881.3 21.03 .00026 4.23 161.27
15.0 178.7 184.2 0.0795 2976.9 22.49 .00026 4.37 160.63
15.5 184.4 190.1 0.0849 3072.1 24.00 .00027 4.51 159.99
16.0 190.1 196.0 0.0904 3167.0 25.55 .00028 4.65 159.35
16.5 195.7 201.8 0.0961 3261.4 27.16 .00029 4.79 158.71
17.0 201.4 207.6 0.1019 3355.4 28.81 .00030 4.94 158.06
17.5 207.0 213.4 0.1079 3449.0 30.51 .00031 5.08 157.42
18.0 212.6 219.2 0.1141 3542.2 32.25 .00032 5.22 156.78
18.5 218.2 224.9 0.1204 3634.9 34.04 .00033 5.36 156.14
19.0 223.7 230.6 0.1269 3727.1 35.88 .00034 5.50 155.50
19.5 229.2 236.3 0.1336 3818.9 37.76 .00034 5.64 154.86
20.0 234.7 241.9 0.1404 3910.2 39.69 .00035 5.78 154.22
20.5 240.1 247.6 0.1474 4001.0 41.67 .00036 5.92 153.58
21.0 245.6 253.1 0.1545 4091.4 43.69 .00037 6.05 152.95
21.5 250.9 258.7 0.1618 4181.2 45.75 .00038 6.19 152.31
22.0 256.3 264.2 0.1693 4270.4 47.86 .00039 6.33 151.67
22.5 261.6 269.7 0.1769 4359.2 50.02 .00040 6.47 151.03
23.0 266.9 275.2 0.1847 4447.4 52.22 .00041 6.60 150.40
23.5 272.2 280.6 0.1926 4535.0 54.46 .00041 6.74 149.76
24.0 277.4 286.0 0.2007 4622.1 56.74 .00042 6.88 149.12
24.5 282.6 291.3 0.2089 4708.6 59.07 .00043 7.01 148.49
25.0 287.8 296.7 0.2173 4794.5 61.45 .00044 7.14 147.86
25.5 292.9 301.9 0.2259 4879.8 63.86 .00045 7.28 147.22
26.0 298.0 307.2 0.2346 4964.5 66.32 .00046 7.41 146.59
26.5 303.0 312.4 0.2434 5048.6 68.82 .00047 7.55 145.95
27.0 308.0 317.5 0.2524 5132.1 71.37 .00048 7.68 145.32
27.5 313.0 322.7 0.2616 5214.9 73.95 .00049 7.81 144.69
28.0 317.9 327.8 0.2709 5297.1 76.58 .00049 7.94 144.06
28.5 322.8 332.8 0.2803 5378.7 79.24 .00050 8.07 143.43
29.0 327.7 337.8 0.2899 5459.5 81.95 .00051 8.20 142.80
29.5 332.5 342.8 0.2996 5539.8 84.70 .00052 8.33 142.17
30.0 337.3 347.7 0.3094 5619.3 87.49 .00053 8.46 141.54
30.5 342.0 352.6 0.3194 5698.1 90.32 .00054 8.59 140.91
31.0 346.7 357.4 0.3296 5776.3 93.18 .00055 8.72 140.28
31.5 351.3 362.2 0.3399 5853.7 96.09 .00056 8.85 139.65
32.0 355.9 366.9 0.3503 5930.4 99.04 .00056 8.97 139.03
32.5 360.5 371.6 0.3608 6006.4 102.02 .00057 9.10 138.40
33.0 365.0 376.3 0.3715 6081.7 105.04 .00058 9.22 137.78
33.5 369.5 380.9 0.3823 6156.2 108.10 .00059 9.35 137.15
34.0 373.9 385.5 0.3933 6230.0 111.20 .00060 9.47 136.53
34.5 378.3 390.0 0.4044 6303.0 114.33 .00061 9.60 135.90
35.0 382.6 394.5 0.4156 6375.3 117.50 .00062 9.72 135.28
35.5 386.9 398.9 0.4269 6446.8 120.71 .00063 9.84 134.66
36.0 391.2 403.3 0.4384 6517.5 123.95 .00063 9.96 134.04
36.5 395.4 407.6 0.4500 6587.5 127.22 .00064 10.08 133.42
37.0 399.5 411.9 0.4617 6656.6 130.54 .00065 10.20 132.80
37.5 403.6 416.1 0.4735 6725.0 133.88 .00066 10.32 132.18
38.0 407.7 420.3 0.4855 6792.6 137.26 .00067 10.44 131.56
38.5 411.7 424.4 0.4976 6859.3 140.68 .00068 10.56 130.94
39.0 415.6 428.5 0.5098 6925.2 144.13 .00069 10.67 130.33
39.5 419.5 432.5 0.5221 6990.3 147.61 .00070 10.79 129.71
40.0 423.4 436.5 0.5345 7054.6 151.12 .00071 10.90 129.10
40.5 427.2 440.4 0.5471 7118.1 154.67 .00071 11.02 128.48
41.0 431.0 444.3 0.5597 7180.7 158.24 .00072 11.13 127.87
41.5 434.7 448.1 0.5725 7242.4 161.85 .00073 11.25 127.25
42.0 438.3 451.9 0.5853 7303.3 165.49 .00074 11.36 126.64
42.5 441.9 455.6 0.5983 7363.4 169.16 .00075 11.47 126.03
43.0 445.5 459.3 0.6114 7422.6 172.86 .00076 11.58 125.42
43.5 449.0 462.9 0.6246 7480.9 176.59 .00077 11.69 124.81
44.0 452.4 466.4 0.6379 7538.4 180.35 .00078 11.80 124.20
44.5 455.8 469.9 0.6513 7595.0 184.14 .00078 11.90 123.60
45.0 459.2 473.4 0.6648 7650.7 187.95 .00079 12.01 122.99
45.5 462.5 476.8 0.6784 7705.5 191.80 .00080 12.12 122.38
46.0 465.7 480.1 0.6921 7759.4 195.67 .00081 12.22 121.78
46.5 468.9 483.4 0.7059 7812.5 199.57 .00082 12.33 121.17
47.0 472.0 486.6 0.7197 7864.6 203.49 .00083 12.43 120.57
47.5 475.1 489.8 0.7337 7915.9 207.44 .00084 12.53 119.97
48.0 478.1 492.9 0.7478 7966.2 211.42 .00085 12.63 119.37
48.5 481.1 496.0 0.7619 8015.6 215.42 .00086 12.73 118.77
49.0 484.0 499.0 0.7762 8064.2 219.44 .00086 12.83 118.17
49.5 486.8 501.9 0.7905 8111.8 223.49 .00087 12.93 117.57
50.0 489.6 504.8 0.8049 8158.5 227.57 .00088 13.03 116.97
50.5 492.4 507.6 0.8194 8204.3 231.66 .00089 13.13 116.37
51.0 495.1 510.4 0.8340 8249.1 235.78 .00090 13.22 115.78
51.5 497.7 513.1 0.8486 8293.1 239.92 .00091 13.32 115.18
52.0 500.3 515.8 0.8633 8336.1 244.09 .00092 13.41 114.59
52.5 502.8 518.4 0.8781 8378.2 248.27 .00093 13.50 114.00
53.0 505.3 520.9 0.8930 8419.3 252.48 .00093 13.59 113.41
53.5 507.7 523.4 0.9080 8459.6 256.71 .00094 13.68 112.82
54.0 510.1 525.9 0.9230 8498.9 260.95 .00095 13.77 112.23
54.5 512.4 528.2 0.9381 8537.2 265.22 .00096 13.86 111.64
55.0 514.6 530.5 0.9532 8574.7 269.50 .00097 13.95 111.05
55.5 516.8 532.8 0.9684 8611.2 273.81 .00098 14.04 110.46
56.0 519.0 535.0 0.9837 8646.7 278.13 .00099 14.12 109.88
56.5 521.0 537.1 0.9991 8681.3 282.47 .00100 14.21 109.29
57.0 523.0 539.2 1.0145 8715.0 286.82 .00101 14.29 108.71
57.5 525.0 541.3 1.0300 8747.7 291.20 .00101 14.37 108.13
58.0 526.9 543.2 1.0455 8779.5 295.59 .00102 14.45 107.55
58.5 528.8 545.1 1.0611 8810.4 299.99 .00103 14.53 106.97
59.0 530.6 547.0 1.0767 8840.3 304.41 .00104 14.61 106.39
59.5 532.3 548.8 1.0924 8869.3 308.85 .00105 14.69 105.81
60.0 534.0 550.5 1.1081 8897.4 313.30 .00106 14.77 105.23
60.5 535.6 552.2 1.1239 8924.5 317.76 .00107 14.84 104.66
61.0 537.2 553.8 1.1397 8950.6 322.23 .00108 14.92 104.08
61.5 538.7 555.4 1.1556 8975.9 326.72 .00108 14.99 103.51
62.0 540.2 556.9 1.1715 9000.2 331.22 .00109 15.06 102.94
62.5 541.6 558.3 1.1875 9023.5 335.74 .00110 15.13 102.37
63.0 542.9 559.7 1.2035 9046.0 340.26 .00111 15.20 101.80
63.5 544.2 561.0 1.2195 9067.5 344.80 .00112 15.27 101.23
64.0 545.4 562.3 1.2356 9088.0 349.34 .00113 15.34 100.66
64.5 546.6 563.5 1.2517 9107.7 353.90 .00114 15.40 100.10

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
65.0 547.7 564.7 1.2679 9126.4 358.46 .00115 15.47 99.53
65.1 548.0 564.9 1.2711 9130.0 359.38 .00115 15.48 99.42
65.2 548.2 565.1 1.2743 9133.6 360.29 .00115 15.50 99.30
65.3 548.4 565.3 1.2776 9137.1 361.21 .00115 15.51 99.19
65.4 548.6 565.6 1.2808 9140.7 362.12 .00115 15.52 99.08
65.5 548.8 565.8 1.2841 9144.1 363.04 .00116 15.53 98.97
65.6 549.0 566.0 1.2873 9147.6 363.95 .00116 15.55 98.85
65.7 549.2 566.2 1.2905 9151.0 364.87 .00116 15.56 98.74
65.8 549.4 566.4 1.2938 9154.4 365.79 .00116 15.57 98.63
65.9 549.6 566.6 1.2970 9157.7 366.70 .00116 15.58 98.52
66.0 549.8 566.8 1.3003 9161.0 367.62 .00116 15.60 98.40
66.1 550.0 567.0 1.3035 9164.3 368.54 .00117 15.61 98.29
66.2 550.2 567.2 1.3068 9167.5 369.46 .00117 15.62 98.18
66.3 550.4 567.4 1.3100 9170.7 370.37 .00117 15.63 98.07
66.4 550.6 567.6 1.3132 9173.8 371.29 .00117 15.65 97.95
66.5 550.8 567.8 1.3165 9176.9 372.21 .00117 15.66 97.84
66.6 551.0 568.0 1.3197 9180.0 373.13 .00117 15.67 97.73
66.7 551.1 568.2 1.3230 9183.1 374.05 .00118 15.68 97.62
66.8 551.3 568.4 1.3263 9186.1 374.97 .00118 15.69 97.51
66.9 551.5 568.6 1.3295 9189.0 375.89 .00118 15.71 97.39
67.0 551.7 568.7 1.3328 9192.0 376.81 .00118 15.72 97.28
67.1 551.8 568.9 1.3360 9194.9 377.73 .00118 15.73 97.17
67.2 552.0 569.1 1.3393 9197.7 378.65 .00119 15.74 97.06
67.3 552.2 569.3 1.3425 9200.5 379.57 .00119 15.75 96.95
67.4 552.4 569.4 1.3458 9203.3 380.49 .00119 15.77 96.83
67.5 552.5 569.6 1.3491 9206.1 381.41 .00119 15.78 96.72
67.6 552.7 569.8 1.3523 9208.8 382.34 .00119 15.79 96.61
67.7 552.8 569.9 1.3556 9211.4 383.26 .00119 15.80 96.50
67.8 553.0 570.1 1.3588 9214.1 384.18 .00120 15.81 96.39
67.9 553.2 570.3 1.3621 9216.7 385.10 .00120 15.82 96.28
68.0 553.3 570.4 1.3654 9219.3 386.03 .00120 15.84 96.16
68.1 553.5 570.6 1.3686 9221.8 386.95 .00120 15.85 96.05
68.2 553.6 570.7 1.3719 9224.3 387.87 .00120 15.86 95.94
68.3 553.8 570.9 1.3752 9226.7 388.80 .00120 15.87 95.83
68.4 553.9 571.0 1.3784 9229.1 389.72 .00121 15.88 95.72
68.5 554.0 571.2 1.3817 9231.5 390.64 .00121 15.89 95.61
68.6 554.2 571.3 1.3850 9233.9 391.57 .00121 15.90 95.50
68.7 554.3 571.5 1.3882 9236.2 392.49 .00121 15.91 95.39
68.8 554.5 571.6 1.3915 9238.5 393.42 .00121 15.93 95.27
68.9 554.6 571.8 1.3948 9240.7 394.34 .00122 15.94 95.16
69.0 554.7 571.9 1.3981 9242.9 395.27 .00122 15.95 95.05
69.1 554.9 572.0 1.4013 9245.1 396.19 .00122 15.96 94.94
69.2 555.0 572.2 1.4046 9247.2 397.12 .00122 15.97 94.83
69.3 555.1 572.3 1.4079 9249.3 398.04 .00122 15.98 94.72
69.4 555.2 572.4 1.4111 9251.3 398.97 .00122 15.99 94.61
69.5 555.4 572.5 1.4144 9253.4 399.90 .00123 16.00 94.50
69.6 555.5 572.7 1.4177 9255.3 400.82 .00123 16.01 94.39
69.7 555.6 572.8 1.4210 9257.3 401.75 .00123 16.02 94.28
69.8 555.7 572.9 1.4243 9259.2 402.68 .00123 16.03 94.17
69.9 555.8 573.0 1.4275 9261.1 403.60 .00123 16.04 94.06
70.0 555.9 573.1 1.4308 9262.9 404.53 .00123 16.05 93.95
70.1 556.0 573.2 1.4341 9264.7 405.46 .00124 16.07 93.83
70.2 556.1 573.3 1.4374 9266.5 406.38 .00124 16.08 93.72
70.3 556.3 573.5 1.4407 9268.2 407.31 .00124 16.09 93.61
70.4 556.4 573.6 1.4439 9269.9 408.24 .00124 16.10 93.50
70.5 556.5 573.7 1.4472 9271.6 409.17 .00124 16.11 93.39
70.6 556.6 573.8 1.4505 9273.2 410.10 .00125 16.12 93.28
70.7 556.6 573.9 1.4538 9274.8 411.02 .00125 16.13 93.17
70.8 556.7 574.0 1.4571 9276.3 411.95 .00125 16.14 93.06
70.9 556.8 574.1 1.4604 9277.9 412.88 .00125 16.15 92.95
71.0 556.9 574.1 1.4636 9279.3 413.81 .00125 16.16 92.84
71.1 557.0 574.2 1.4669 9280.8 414.74 .00125 16.17 92.73
71.2 557.1 574.3 1.4702 9282.2 415.67 .00126 16.18 92.62
71.3 557.2 574.4 1.4735 9283.6 416.60 .00126 16.19 92.51
71.4 557.3 574.5 1.4768 9284.9 417.53 .00126 16.20 92.40
71.5 557.3 574.6 1.4801 9286.2 418.46 .00126 16.21 92.29
71.6 557.4 574.6 1.4834 9287.5 419.38 .00126 16.22 92.18
71.7 557.5 574.7 1.4866 9288.7 420.31 .00126 16.23 92.07
71.8 557.6 574.8 1.4899 9289.9 421.24 .00127 16.24 91.96
71.9 557.6 574.9 1.4932 9291.1 422.17 .00127 16.24 91.86
72.0 557.7 574.9 1.4965 9292.2 423.10 .00127 16.25 91.75
72.1 557.8 575.0 1.4998 9293.3 424.03 .00127 16.26 91.64
72.2 557.8 575.1 1.5031 9294.3 424.96 .00127 16.27 91.53
72.3 557.9 575.1 1.5064 9295.4 425.89 .00128 16.28 91.42
72.4 557.9 575.2 1.5097 9296.4 426.82 .00128 16.29 91.31
72.5 558.0 575.3 1.5130 9297.3 427.75 .00128 16.30 91.20

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
72.6 558.1 575.3 1.5162 9298.2 428.69 .00128 16.31 91.09
72.7 558.1 575.4 1.5195 9299.1 429.62 .00128 16.32 90.98
72.8 558.2 575.4 1.5228 9299.9 430.55 .00128 16.33 90.87
72.9 558.2 575.5 1.5261 9300.8 431.48 .00129 16.34 90.76
73.0 558.3 575.5 1.5294 9301.5 432.41 .00129 16.35 90.65
73.1 558.3 575.6 1.5327 9302.3 433.34 .00129 16.36 90.54
73.2 558.3 575.6 1.5360 9303.0 434.27 .00129 16.36 90.44
73.3 558.4 575.6 1.5393 9303.6 435.20 .00129 16.37 90.33
73.4 558.4 575.7 1.5426 9304.3 436.13 .00129 16.38 90.22
73.5 558.5 575.7 1.5459 9304.9 437.06 .00130 16.39 90.11
73.6 558.5 575.8 1.5492 9305.4 437.99 .00130 16.40 90.00
73.7 558.5 575.8 1.5525 9306.0 438.92 .00130 16.41 89.89
73.8 558.5 575.8 1.5558 9306.5 439.85 .00130 16.42 89.78
73.9 558.6 575.8 1.5590 9306.9 440.79 .00130 16.43 89.67
74.0 558.6 575.9 1.5623 9307.3 441.72 .00131 16.43 89.57
74.1 558.6 575.9 1.5656 9307.7 442.65 .00131 16.44 89.46
74.2 558.6 575.9 1.5689 9308.1 443.58 .00131 16.45 89.35
74.3 558.7 575.9 1.5722 9308.4 444.51 .00131 16.46 89.24
74.4 558.7 576.0 1.5755 9308.7 445.44 .00131 16.47 89.13
74.5 558.7 576.0 1.5788 9308.9 446.37 .00131 16.48 89.02
74.6 558.7 576.0 1.5821 9309.2 447.30 .00132 16.48 88.92
74.7 558.7 576.0 1.5854 9309.3 448.24 .00132 16.49 88.81
74.8 558.7 576.0 1.5887 9309.5 449.17 .00132 16.50 88.70
74.9 558.7 576.0 1.5920 9309.6 450.10 .00132 16.51 88.59
75.0 558.7 576.0 1.5953 9309.7 451.03 .00132 16.52 88.48
75.1 558.7 576.0 1.5986 9309.7 451.96 .00132 16.52 88.38
75.2 558.7 576.0 1.6019 9309.7 452.89 .00133 16.53 88.27
75.3 558.7 576.0 1.6052 9309.7 453.82 .00133 16.54 88.16
75.4 558.7 576.0 1.6085 9309.7 454.75 .00133 16.55 88.05
75.5 558.7 576.0 1.6117 9309.6 455.69 .00133 16.55 87.95
75.6 558.7 576.0 1.6150 9309.4 456.62 .00133 16.56 87.84
75.7 558.7 576.0 1.6183 9309.3 457.55 .00134 16.57 87.73
75.8 558.7 576.0 1.6216 9309.1 458.48 .00134 16.58 87.62
75.9 558.7 576.0 1.6249 9308.8 459.41 .00134 16.59 87.51
76.0 558.7 576.0 1.6282 9308.6 460.34 .00134 16.59 87.41
76.1 558.7 575.9 1.6315 9308.3 461.27 .00134 16.60 87.30
76.2 558.6 575.9 1.6348 9308.0 462.20 .00134 16.61 87.19
76.3 558.6 575.9 1.6381 9307.6 463.13 .00135 16.61 87.09
76.4 558.6 575.9 1.6414 9307.2 464.06 .00135 16.62 86.98
76.5 558.6 575.8 1.6447 9306.8 465.00 .00135 16.63 86.87
76.6 558.5 575.8 1.6480 9306.3 465.93 .00135 16.64 86.76
76.7 558.5 575.8 1.6513 9305.8 466.86 .00135 16.64 86.66
76.8 558.5 575.7 1.6546 9305.3 467.79 .00135 16.65 86.55
76.9 558.4 575.7 1.6578 9304.7 468.72 .00136 16.66 86.44
77.0 558.4 575.7 1.6611 9304.1 469.65 .00136 16.66 86.34
77.1 558.4 575.6 1.6644 9303.4 470.58 .00136 16.67 86.23
77.2 558.3 575.6 1.6677 9302.8 471.51 .00136 16.68 86.12
77.3 558.3 575.6 1.6710 9302.1 472.44 .00136 16.68 86.02
77.4 558.2 575.5 1.6743 9301.3 473.37 .00137 16.69 85.91
77.5 558.2 575.5 1.6776 9300.6 474.30 .00137 16.70 85.80
77.6 558.1 575.4 1.6809 9299.8 475.23 .00137 16.70 85.70
77.7 558.1 575.4 1.6842 9298.9 476.16 .00137 16.71 85.59
77.8 558.0 575.3 1.6874 9298.1 477.09 .00137 16.72 85.48
77.9 558.0 575.2 1.6907 9297.2 478.02 .00137 16.72 85.38
78.0 557.9 575.2 1.6940 9296.2 478.95 .00138 16.73 85.27
78.1 557.9 575.1 1.6973 9295.3 479.88 .00138 16.74 85.16
78.2 557.8 575.1 1.7006 9294.3 480.81 .00138 16.74 85.06
78.3 557.8 575.0 1.7039 9293.2 481.74 .00138 16.75 84.95
78.4 557.7 574.9 1.7072 9292.1 482.66 .00138 16.76 84.84
78.5 557.6 574.9 1.7105 9291.0 483.59 .00138 16.76 84.74
78.6 557.6 574.8 1.7137 9289.9 484.52 .00139 16.77 84.63
78.7 557.5 574.7 1.7170 9288.7 485.45 .00139 16.77 84.53
78.8 557.4 574.7 1.7203 9287.5 486.38 .00139 16.78 84.42
78.9 557.3 574.6 1.7236 9286.3 487.31 .00139 16.79 84.31
79.0 557.3 574.5 1.7269 9285.0 488.24 .00139 16.79 84.21
79.1 557.2 574.4 1.7302 9283.7 489.16 .00140 16.80 84.10
79.2 557.1 574.3 1.7334 9282.4 490.09 .00140 16.80 84.00
79.3 557.0 574.2 1.7367 9281.0 491.02 .00140 16.81 83.89
79.4 556.9 574.2 1.7400 9279.7 491.95 .00140 16.82 83.78
79.5 556.9 574.1 1.7433 9278.2 492.87 .00140 16.82 83.68
79.6 556.8 574.0 1.7466 9276.8 493.80 .00140 16.83 83.57
79.7 556.7 573.9 1.7498 9275.3 494.73 .00141 16.83 83.47
79.8 556.6 573.8 1.7531 9273.7 495.66 .00141 16.84 83.36
79.9 556.5 573.7 1.7564 9272.2 496.58 .00141 16.84 83.26
80.0 556.4 573.6 1.7597 9270.6 497.51 .00141 16.85 83.15

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
80.5 555.9 573.1 1.7761 9262.1 502.14 .00142 16.87 82.63
81.0 555.3 572.5 1.7924 9252.9 506.77 .00143 16.90 82.10
81.5 554.7 571.9 1.8088 9242.8 511.39 .00144 16.92 81.58
82.0 554.1 571.2 1.8251 9232.0 516.00 .00145 16.94 81.06
82.5 553.4 570.5 1.8414 9220.4 520.61 .00146 16.97 80.53
83.0 552.6 569.7 1.8577 9208.0 525.21 .00146 16.98 80.02
83.5 551.8 568.9 1.8739 9194.8 529.81 .00147 17.00 79.50
84.0 551.0 568.0 1.8901 9180.8 534.40 .00148 17.02 78.98
84.5 550.1 567.1 1.9063 9166.1 538.98 .00149 17.03 78.47
85.0 549.2 566.2 1.9225 9150.7 543.55 .00150 17.05 77.95
85.5 548.2 565.2 1.9387 9134.5 548.11 .00151 17.06 77.44
86.0 547.2 564.1 1.9548 9117.5 552.67 .00152 17.07 76.93
86.5 546.1 563.0 1.9708 9099.8 557.21 .00153 17.08 76.42
87.0 545.0 561.9 1.9869 9081.4 561.75 .00153 17.09 75.91
87.5 543.9 560.7 2.0029 9062.2 566.28 .00154 17.10 75.40
88.0 542.7 559.5 2.0189 9042.4 570.79 .00155 17.11 74.89
88.5 541.5 558.2 2.0348 9021.8 575.30 .00156 17.11 74.39
89.0 540.2 556.9 2.0507 9000.5 579.79 .00157 17.11 73.89
89.5 538.9 555.5 2.0666 8978.6 584.28 .00158 17.12 73.38
90.0 537.5 554.1 2.0824 8955.9 588.75 .00159 17.12 72.88
90.5 536.1 552.7 2.0982 8932.6 593.21 .00160 17.12 72.38
91.0 534.7 551.2 2.1139 8908.5 597.65 .00160 17.11 71.89
91.5 533.2 549.7 2.1296 8883.9 602.09 .00161 17.11 71.39
92.0 531.7 548.1 2.1452 8858.5 606.51 .00162 17.11 70.89
92.5 530.1 546.5 2.1608 8832.5 610.92 .00163 17.10 70.40
93.0 528.5 544.8 2.1763 8805.9 615.31 .00164 17.09 69.91
93.5 526.9 543.2 2.1918 8778.6 619.69 .00165 17.08 69.42
94.0 525.2 541.4 2.2073 8750.7 624.06 .00166 17.07 68.93
94.5 523.5 539.7 2.2227 8722.1 628.41 .00167 17.06 68.44
95.0 521.7 537.9 2.2380 8693.0 632.75 .00168 17.05 67.95
95.5 519.9 536.0 2.2533 8663.2 637.07 .00168 17.03 67.47
96.0 518.1 534.1 2.2685 8632.8 641.38 .00169 17.02 66.98
96.5 516.3 532.2 2.2837 8601.9 645.67 .00170 17.00 66.50
97.0 514.4 530.3 2.2988 8570.3 649.94 .00171 16.98 66.02
97.5 512.4 528.3 2.3139 8538.2 654.20 .00172 16.97 65.53
98.0 510.5 526.3 2.3289 8505.5 658.44 .00173 16.94 65.06
98.5 508.5 524.2 2.3438 8472.2 662.67 .00174 16.92 64.58
99.0 506.4 522.1 2.3587 8438.4 666.87 .00175 16.90 64.10
99.5 504.4 520.0 2.3735 8404.0 671.06 .00175 16.87 63.63
100.0 502.3 517.8 2.3883 8369.1 675.24 .00176 16.85 63.15
100.5 500.2 515.6 2.4030 8333.6 679.39 .00177 16.82 62.68
101.0 498.0 513.4 2.4176 8297.7 683.52 .00178 16.79 62.21
101.5 495.8 511.1 2.4322 8261.2 687.64 .00179 16.76 61.74
102.0 493.6 508.9 2.4467 8224.1 691.74 .00180 16.73 61.27
102.5 491.3 506.5 2.4611 8186.6 695.82 .00181 16.70 60.80
103.0 489.1 504.2 2.4755 8148.6 699.88 .00182 16.66 60.34
103.5 486.7 501.8 2.4897 8110.1 703.92 .00183 16.63 59.87
104.0 484.4 499.4 2.5040 8071.1 707.94 .00183 16.59 59.41
104.5 482.0 496.9 2.5181 8031.7 711.94 .00184 16.55 58.95
105.0 479.6 494.5 2.5322 7991.8 715.92 .00185 16.52 58.48
105.5 477.2 492.0 2.5462 7951.4 719.89 .00186 16.48 58.02
106.0 474.8 489.5 2.5601 7910.6 723.83 .00187 16.43 57.57
106.5 472.3 486.9 2.5740 7869.3 727.74 .00188 16.39 57.11
107.0 469.8 484.3 2.5878 7827.6 731.64 .00189 16.35 56.65
107.5 467.3 481.7 2.6015 7785.5 735.52 .00190 16.30 56.20
108.0 464.7 479.1 2.6151 7742.9 739.38 .00190 16.25 55.75
108.5 462.1 476.4 2.6287 7700.0 743.21 .00191 16.21 55.29
109.0 459.5 473.7 2.6422 7656.6 747.02 .00192 16.16 54.84
109.5 456.9 471.0 2.6556 7612.8 750.81 .00193 16.11 54.39
110.0 454.2 468.3 2.6689 7568.7 754.58 .00194 16.06 53.95
110.5 451.6 465.5 2.6822 7524.1 758.33 .00195 16.00 53.50
111.0 448.9 462.8 2.6953 7479.2 762.05 .00196 15.95 53.05
111.5 446.2 460.0 2.7084 7433.9 765.75 .00197 15.89 52.61
112.0 443.4 457.1 2.7214 7388.3 769.43 .00198 15.84 52.16
112.5 440.7 454.3 2.7344 7342.3 773.08 .00198 15.78 51.72
113.0 437.9 451.4 2.7472 7295.9 776.71 .00199 15.72 51.28
113.5 435.1 448.5 2.7600 7249.2 780.32 .00200 15.66 50.84
114.0 432.3 445.6 2.7726 7202.2 783.90 .00201 15.60 50.40
114.5 429.4 442.7 2.7852 7154.9 787.47 .00202 15.53 49.97
115.0 426.6 439.7 2.7978 7107.2 791.00 .00203 15.47 49.53
115.5 423.7 436.8 2.8102 7059.3 794.52 .00204 15.40 49.10
116.0 420.8 433.8 2.8225 7011.0 798.00 .00205 15.34 48.66
116.5 417.9 430.8 2.8348 6962.4 801.47 .00205 15.27 48.23
117.0 414.9 427.8 2.8469 6913.6 804.91 .00206 15.20 47.80
117.5 412.0 424.7 2.8590 6864.4 808.33 .00207 15.13 47.37
118.0 409.0 421.7 2.8710 6815.0 811.72 .00208 15.06 46.94
118.5 406.0 418.6 2.8829 6765.3 815.08 .00209 14.99 46.51
119.0 403.0 415.5 2.8947 6715.4 818.42 .00210 14.92 46.08
119.5 400.0 412.4 2.9065 6665.2 821.74 .00211 14.84 45.66
120.0 397.0 409.3 2.9181 6614.7 825.03 .00212 14.77 45.23
120.5 394.0 406.1 2.9297 6564.0 828.30 .00213 14.69 44.81
121.0 390.9 403.0 2.9411 6513.1 831.54 .00213 14.61 44.39
121.5 387.8 399.8 2.9525 6461.9 834.76 .00214 14.53 43.97
122.0 384.7 396.6 2.9638 6410.5 837.95 .00215 14.45 43.55
122.5 381.6 393.4 2.9750 6358.9 841.11 .00216 14.37 43.13
123.0 378.5 390.2 2.9861 6307.1 844.25 .00217 14.29 42.71
123.5 375.4 387.0 2.9971 6255.1 847.36 .00218 14.21 42.29
124.0 372.3 383.8 3.0080 6202.8 850.45 .00219 14.12 41.88
124.5 369.1 380.5 3.0188 6150.4 853.51 .00220 14.04 41.46
125.0 366.0 377.3 3.0296 6097.8 856.54 .00220 13.95 41.05
125.5 362.8 374.0 3.0402 6045.0 859.55 .00221 13.86 40.64
126.0 359.6 370.7 3.0508 5992.1 862.54 .00222 13.77 40.23
126.5 356.4 367.5 3.0612 5938.9 865.49 .00223 13.68 39.82
127.0 353.2 364.2 3.0716 5885.6 868.42 .00224 13.59 39.41
127.5 350.0 360.9 3.0819 5832.2 871.32 .00225 13.50 39.00
128.0 346.8 357.5 3.0920 5778.6 874.20 .00226 13.41 38.59
128.5 343.6 354.2 3.1021 5724.8 877.05 .00227 13.32 38.18
129.0 340.4 350.9 3.1121 5670.9 879.88 .00228 13.22 37.78
129.5 337.1 347.5 3.1220 5616.9 882.67 .00228 13.13 37.37
130.0 333.9 344.2 3.1318 5562.7 885.44 .00229 13.03 36.97
130.5 330.6 340.8 3.1415 5508.4 888.19 .00230 12.93 36.57
131.0 327.3 337.5 3.1511 5454.0 890.90 .00231 12.83 36.17
131.5 324.1 334.1 3.1606 5399.5 893.59 .00232 12.73 35.77
132.0 320.8 330.7 3.1700 5344.8 896.25 .00233 12.63 35.37
132.5 317.5 327.3 3.1793 5290.1 898.89 .00234 12.53 34.97
133.0 314.2 323.9 3.1886 5235.2 901.50 .00235 12.43 34.57
133.5 310.9 320.5 3.1977 5180.3 904.08 .00235 12.33 34.17
134.0 307.6 317.1 3.2067 5125.2 906.63 .00236 12.22 33.78
134.5 304.3 313.7 3.2157 5070.1 909.16 .00237 12.12 33.38
135.0 301.0 310.3 3.2245 5014.9 911.66 .00238 12.01 32.99
135.5 297.7 306.9 3.2333 4959.6 914.13 .00239 11.90 32.60
136.0 294.3 303.4 3.2419 4904.2 916.58 .00240 11.80 32.20
136.5 291.0 300.0 3.2505 4848.7 918.99 .00241 11.69 31.81
137.0 287.7 296.6 3.2589 4793.2 921.38 .00242 11.58 31.42
137.5 284.3 293.1 3.2673 4737.6 923.75 .00243 11.47 31.03
138.0 281.0 289.7 3.2755 4682.0 926.08 .00243 11.36 30.64
138.5 277.7 286.2 3.2837 4626.3 928.39 .00244 11.25 30.25
139.0 274.3 282.8 3.2918 4570.5 930.67 .00245 11.13 29.87
139.5 271.0 279.3 3.2997 4514.7 932.92 .00246 11.02 29.48
140.0 267.6 275.9 3.3076 4458.9 935.15 .00247 10.90 29.10
140.5 264.3 272.4 3.3154 4403.0 937.35 .00248 10.79 28.71
141.0 260.9 269.0 3.3230 4347.0 939.52 .00249 10.67 28.33
141.5 257.5 265.5 3.3306 4291.1 941.66 .00250 10.56 27.94
142.0 254.2 262.0 3.3381 4235.0 943.77 .00250 10.44 27.56
142.5 250.8 258.6 3.3455 4179.0 945.86 .00251 10.32 27.18
143.0 247.4 255.1 3.3528 4122.9 947.92 .00252 10.20 26.80
143.5 244.1 251.6 3.3600 4066.9 949.95 .00253 10.08 26.42
144.0 240.7 248.2 3.3670 4010.7 951.96 .00254 9.96 26.04
144.5 237.3 244.7 3.3740 3954.6 953.93 .00255 9.84 25.66
145.0 234.0 241.2 3.3809 3898.5 955.88 .00256 9.72 25.28
145.5 230.6 237.7 3.3877 3842.3 957.80 .00257 9.60 24.90
146.0 227.2 234.3 3.3944 3786.1 959.70 .00257 9.47 24.53
146.5 223.9 230.8 3.4010 3730.0 961.56 .00258 9.35 24.15
147.0 220.5 227.3 3.4075 3673.8 963.40 .00259 9.22 23.78
147.5 217.1 223.8 3.4139 3617.6 965.21 .00260 9.10 23.40
148.0 213.7 220.4 3.4202 3561.4 966.99 .00261 8.97 23.03
148.5 210.4 216.9 3.4264 3505.2 968.75 .00262 8.85 22.65
149.0 207.0 213.4 3.4325 3449.0 970.47 .00263 8.72 22.28
149.5 203.6 209.9 3.4385 3392.8 972.17 .00264 8.59 21.91
150.0 200.3 206.4 3.4445 3336.6 973.84 .00265 8.46 21.54
150.5 196.9 203.0 3.4503 3280.4 975.49 .00265 8.33 21.17
151.0 193.5 199.5 3.4560 3224.3 977.10 .00266 8.20 20.80
151.5 190.1 196.0 3.4616 3168.1 978.69 .00267 8.07 20.43
152.0 186.8 192.5 3.4671 3112.0 980.25 .00268 7.94 20.06
152.5 183.4 189.1 3.4725 3055.8 981.78 .00269 7.81 19.69
153.0 180.0 185.6 3.4779 2999.7 983.29 .00270 7.68 19.32
153.5 176.7 182.1 3.4831 2943.6 984.77 .00271 7.55 18.95
154.0 173.3 178.7 3.4882 2887.5 986.22 .00272 7.41 18.59
154.5 169.9 175.2 3.4932 2831.4 987.64 .00272 7.28 18.22
155.0 166.6 171.7 3.4982 2775.4 989.03 .00273 7.14 17.86
155.5 163.2 168.3 3.5030 2719.3 990.40 .00274 7.01 17.49
156.0 159.8 164.8 3.5077 2663.3 991.74 .00275 6.88 17.12
156.5 156.5 161.3 3.5124 2607.3 993.05 .00276 6.74 16.76
157.0 153.1 157.9 3.5169 2551.3 994.33 .00277 6.60 16.40
157.5 149.8 154.4 3.5214 2495.4 995.58 .00278 6.47 16.03
158.0 146.4 150.9 3.5257 2439.4 996.81 .00279 6.33 15.67
158.5 143.1 147.5 3.5299 2383.5 998.01 .00280 6.19 15.31
159.0 139.7 144.0 3.5341 2327.7 999.18 .00280 6.05 14.95
159.5 136.3 140.6 3.5381 2271.8 1000.33 .00281 5.92 14.58
160.0 133.0 137.1 3.5421 2216.0 1001.44 .00282 5.78 14.22
160.5 129.6 133.7 3.5459 2160.2 1002.53 .00283 5.64 13.86
161.0 126.3 130.2 3.5497 2104.4 1003.60 .00284 5.50 13.50
161.5 123.0 126.8 3.5533 2048.6 1004.63 .00285 5.36 13.14
162.0 119.6 123.3 3.5569 1992.9 1005.63 .00286 5.22 12.78
162.5 116.3 119.9 3.5604 1937.2 1006.61 .00287 5.08 12.42
163.0 112.9 116.4 3.5637 1881.5 1007.56 .00287 4.94 12.06
163.5 109.6 113.0 3.5670 1825.8 1008.49 .00288 4.79 11.71
164.0 106.2 109.5 3.5702 1770.2 1009.38 .00289 4.65 11.35
164.5 102.9 106.1 3.5732 1714.6 1010.25 .00290 4.51 10.99
165.0 99.6 102.6 3.5762 1659.0 1011.09 .00291 4.37 10.63
165.5 96.2 99.2 3.5791 1603.4 1011.90 .00292 4.23 10.27
166.0 92.9 95.8 3.5818 1547.9 1012.69 .00293 4.08 9.92
166.5 89.6 92.3 3.5845 1492.4 1013.44 .00294 3.94 9.56
167.0 86.2 88.9 3.5871 1436.9 1014.17 .00295 3.80 9.20
167.5 82.9 85.5 3.5896 1381.4 1014.88 .00295 3.65 8.85
168.0 79.6 82.0 3.5920 1326.0 1015.55 .00296 3.51 8.49
168.5 76.3 78.6 3.5943 1270.6 1016.20 .00297 3.36 8.14
169.0 72.9 75.2 3.5965 1215.2 1016.82 .00298 3.22 7.78
169.5 69.6 71.8 3.5985 1159.8 1017.41 .00299 3.07 7.43
170.0 66.3 68.3 3.6005 1104.4 1017.97 .00300 2.93 7.07
170.5 63.0 64.9 3.6024 1049.1 1018.51 .00301 2.78 6.72
171.0 59.6 61.5 3.6042 993.8 1019.02 .00302 2.64 6.36
171.5 56.3 58.1 3.6059 938.5 1019.50 .00302 2.49 6.01
172.0 53.0 54.6 3.6075 883.2 1019.95 .00303 2.35 5.65
172.5 49.7 51.2 3.6091 827.9 1020.38 .00304 2.20 5.30
173.0 46.4 47.8 3.6105 772.6 1020.78 .00305 2.06 4.94
173.5 43.1 44.4 3.6118 717.4 1021.15 .00306 1.91 4.59
174.0 39.7 41.0 3.6130 662.1 1021.49 .00307 1.76 4.24
174.5 36.4 37.6 3.6141 606.9 1021.81 .00308 1.62 3.88
175.0 33.1 34.1 3.6151 551.7 1022.10 .00309 1.47 3.53
175.5 29.8 30.7 3.6161 496.5 1022.36 .00310 1.32 3.18
176.0 26.5 27.3 3.6169 441.3 1022.59 .00310 1.18 2.82
176.5 23.2 23.9 3.6176 386.1 1022.80 .00311 1.03 2.47
177.0 19.9 20.5 3.6182 331.0 1022.98 .00312 0.88 2.12
177.5 16.6 17.1 3.6188 275.8 1023.13 .00313 0.74 1.76
178.0 13.2 13.7 3.6192 220.6 1023.25 .00314 0.59 1.41
178.5 9.9 10.2 3.6196 165.5 1023.35 .00315 0.44 1.06
179.0 6.6 6.8 3.6198 110.3 1023.42 .00316 0.29 0.71
179.5 3.3 3.4 3.6200 55.2 1023.46 .00317 0.15 0.35
180.0 0.0 0.0 3.6200 0.0 1023.47 .00317 0.00 0.00

As the Cylinder Head CFM is decreased more than the required Piston CFM ,
pumping losses increase rapidly to the point the Engine may never attain
the RPM you desired, or make the Horsepower and Torque you wanted.

Also, due to Lag-Time between Piston motion -VS- the Time it takes for the
Wave Pulse to travel the Total Length of the Induction Tract, actual Flow CFM
Demand may be 20+ or more than Calculated Data shown here in these Columns.
 

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Compared to My 484 FE, Pipemax output says I need around 425 cfm and the head/intake system is only providing around 330 cfm at 7200 rpm, while the Pro stock engine is providing almost the needed piston demand cfm. So my engine is "sucking" on the port at 7200 rpm and the pumping losses start to add up.


Piston CFM Column = is the CFM @28in. the Engine really wants at 7200 RPM
Cyl Head CFM Column = is what you say the Engine is getting.
you are saying this by your Volumetric Efficiency Input

If you have no real Ve% Dyno Data , ... a good starting point is to :
Adjust the Volumetric Efficiency % Input until the Peak Cylinder Head CFM
matches your FlowBench CFM data at your Camshaft's max Valve Lift point.
Usually Peak Cylinder Head and Piston CFM Demand occurs 70 to 80 deg ATDC

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0000 0.0 0.00 .00000 0.00 180.00
0.5 3.7 4.7 0.0001 92.1 0.02 .00001 0.16 179.34
1.0 7.3 9.4 0.0004 184.1 0.10 .00002 0.32 178.68
1.5 11.0 14.1 0.0010 276.2 0.22 .00003 0.48 178.02
2.0 14.6 18.7 0.0017 368.2 0.40 .00005 0.63 177.37
2.5 18.3 23.4 0.0027 460.2 0.62 .00006 0.79 176.71
3.0 21.9 28.1 0.0038 552.1 0.89 .00007 0.95 176.05
3.5 25.6 32.8 0.0052 643.9 1.21 .00008 1.11 175.39
4.0 29.2 37.4 0.0068 735.6 1.58 .00009 1.27 174.73
4.5 32.8 42.1 0.0086 827.3 2.01 .00010 1.43 174.07
5.0 36.5 46.7 0.0106 918.8 2.48 .00012 1.58 173.42
5.5 40.1 51.4 0.0129 1010.2 2.99 .00013 1.74 172.76
6.0 43.7 56.0 0.0153 1101.5 3.56 .00014 1.90 172.10
6.5 47.3 60.7 0.0180 1192.7 4.18 .00015 2.06 171.44
7.0 50.9 65.3 0.0208 1283.6 4.85 .00016 2.22 170.78
7.5 54.5 69.9 0.0239 1374.5 5.56 .00017 2.37 170.13
8.0 58.1 74.5 0.0272 1465.1 6.33 .00019 2.53 169.47
8.5 61.7 79.1 0.0307 1555.5 7.14 .00020 2.69 168.81
9.0 65.3 83.7 0.0344 1645.8 8.00 .00021 2.84 168.16
9.5 68.9 88.3 0.0383 1735.8 8.91 .00022 3.00 167.50
10.0 72.4 92.9 0.0425 1825.6 9.87 .00023 3.16 166.84
10.5 76.0 97.4 0.0468 1915.2 10.88 .00024 3.31 166.19
11.0 79.5 102.0 0.0513 2004.5 11.93 .00025 3.47 165.53
11.5 83.1 106.5 0.0561 2093.5 13.03 .00027 3.63 164.87
12.0 86.6 111.0 0.0610 2182.3 14.18 .00028 3.78 164.22
12.5 90.1 115.5 0.0662 2270.8 15.38 .00029 3.94 163.56
13.0 93.6 120.0 0.0715 2359.0 16.63 .00030 4.09 162.91
13.5 97.1 124.5 0.0771 2446.9 17.92 .00031 4.25 162.25
14.0 100.6 128.9 0.0829 2534.5 19.27 .00032 4.40 161.60
14.5 104.0 133.4 0.0888 2621.7 20.65 .00034 4.55 160.95
15.0 107.5 137.8 0.0950 2708.6 22.09 .00035 4.71 160.29
15.5 110.9 142.2 0.1014 2795.2 23.57 .00036 4.86 159.64
16.0 114.3 146.6 0.1080 2881.4 25.10 .00037 5.02 158.98
16.5 117.7 151.0 0.1147 2967.2 26.67 .00038 5.17 158.33
17.0 121.1 155.3 0.1217 3052.6 28.30 .00039 5.32 157.68
17.5 124.5 159.6 0.1289 3137.7 29.96 .00041 5.47 157.03
18.0 127.9 163.9 0.1363 3222.3 31.68 .00042 5.62 156.38
18.5 131.2 168.2 0.1438 3306.5 33.43 .00043 5.78 155.72
19.0 134.5 172.5 0.1516 3390.3 35.24 .00044 5.93 155.07
19.5 137.8 176.7 0.1595 3473.6 37.09 .00045 6.08 154.42
20.0 141.1 180.9 0.1677 3556.5 38.98 .00046 6.23 153.77
20.5 144.4 185.1 0.1760 3639.0 40.92 .00047 6.38 153.12
21.0 147.7 189.3 0.1846 3721.0 42.90 .00049 6.53 152.47
21.5 150.9 193.4 0.1933 3802.5 44.93 .00050 6.68 151.82
22.0 154.1 197.6 0.2022 3883.5 47.00 .00051 6.82 151.18
22.5 157.3 201.7 0.2113 3964.0 49.12 .00052 6.97 150.53
23.0 160.5 205.7 0.2206 4044.0 51.28 .00053 7.12 149.88
23.5 163.6 209.8 0.2300 4123.5 53.48 .00054 7.27 149.23
24.0 166.8 213.8 0.2397 4202.5 55.72 .00056 7.41 148.59
24.5 169.9 217.8 0.2495 4280.9 58.01 .00057 7.56 147.94
25.0 173.0 221.7 0.2596 4358.8 60.34 .00058 7.70 147.30
25.5 176.0 225.7 0.2698 4436.1 62.71 .00059 7.85 146.65
26.0 179.1 229.6 0.2801 4512.9 65.12 .00060 7.99 146.01
26.5 182.1 233.5 0.2907 4589.1 67.58 .00061 8.14 145.36
27.0 185.1 237.3 0.3014 4664.7 70.07 .00063 8.28 144.72
27.5 188.1 241.1 0.3123 4739.8 72.61 .00064 8.42 144.08
28.0 191.0 244.9 0.3234 4814.2 75.19 .00065 8.56 143.44
28.5 194.0 248.7 0.3347 4888.0 77.80 .00066 8.70 142.80
29.0 196.9 252.4 0.3461 4961.2 80.46 .00067 8.85 142.15
29.5 199.7 256.1 0.3577 5033.8 83.16 .00068 8.99 141.51
30.0 202.6 259.7 0.3695 5105.7 85.89 .00069 9.12 140.88
30.5 205.4 263.4 0.3814 5177.0 88.67 .00071 9.26 140.24
31.0 208.2 267.0 0.3935 5247.7 91.48 .00072 9.40 139.60
31.5 211.0 270.5 0.4058 5317.7 94.33 .00073 9.54 138.96
32.0 213.8 274.1 0.4182 5387.1 97.22 .00074 9.68 138.32
32.5 216.5 277.6 0.4308 5455.7 100.14 .00075 9.81 137.69
33.0 219.2 281.0 0.4435 5523.7 103.11 .00076 9.95 137.05
33.5 221.9 284.4 0.4564 5591.0 106.11 .00078 10.08 136.42
34.0 224.5 287.8 0.4695 5657.6 109.14 .00079 10.22 135.78
34.5 227.1 291.2 0.4827 5723.5 112.22 .00080 10.35 135.15
35.0 229.7 294.5 0.4961 5788.8 115.33 .00081 10.48 134.52
35.5 232.3 297.8 0.5096 5853.2 118.47 .00082 10.61 133.89
36.0 234.8 301.0 0.5233 5917.0 121.65 .00083 10.74 133.26
36.5 237.3 304.2 0.5371 5980.1 124.86 .00084 10.87 132.63
37.0 239.8 307.4 0.5511 6042.4 128.11 .00086 11.00 132.00
37.5 242.2 310.5 0.5652 6103.9 131.39 .00087 11.13 131.37
38.0 244.6 313.6 0.5794 6164.8 134.70 .00088 11.26 130.74
38.5 247.0 316.7 0.5938 6224.9 138.05 .00089 11.39 130.11
39.0 249.4 319.7 0.6084 6284.2 141.43 .00090 11.51 129.49
39.5 251.7 322.7 0.6231 6342.7 144.84 .00091 11.64 128.86
40.0 254.0 325.6 0.6379 6400.5 148.28 .00093 11.76 128.24
40.5 256.2 328.5 0.6528 6457.5 151.76 .00094 11.89 127.61
41.0 258.5 331.4 0.6679 6513.8 155.26 .00095 12.01 126.99
41.5 260.7 334.2 0.6831 6569.2 158.80 .00096 12.13 126.37
42.0 262.8 337.0 0.6984 6623.9 162.36 .00097 12.25 125.75
42.5 265.0 339.7 0.7139 6677.8 165.96 .00098 12.37 125.13
43.0 267.1 342.4 0.7295 6730.8 169.58 .00100 12.49 124.51
43.5 269.2 345.1 0.7452 6783.1 173.23 .00101 12.61 123.89
44.0 271.2 347.7 0.7610 6834.6 176.91 .00102 12.73 123.27
44.5 273.2 350.3 0.7770 6885.2 180.62 .00103 12.84 122.66
45.0 275.2 352.8 0.7931 6935.1 184.36 .00104 12.96 122.04
45.5 277.1 355.3 0.8093 6984.1 188.12 .00105 13.07 121.43
46.0 279.1 357.8 0.8256 7032.3 191.91 .00106 13.19 120.81
46.5 280.9 360.2 0.8420 7079.7 195.73 .00108 13.30 120.20
47.0 282.8 362.5 0.8585 7126.2 199.57 .00109 13.41 119.59
47.5 284.6 364.9 0.8751 7172.0 203.44 .00110 13.52 118.98
48.0 286.4 367.1 0.8919 7216.8 207.33 .00111 13.63 118.37
48.5 288.1 369.4 0.9087 7260.9 211.24 .00112 13.74 117.76
49.0 289.8 371.6 0.9256 7304.1 215.18 .00113 13.85 117.15
49.5 291.5 373.7 0.9427 7346.4 219.14 .00115 13.96 116.54
50.0 293.2 375.8 0.9598 7387.9 223.13 .00116 14.06 115.94
50.5 294.8 377.9 0.9771 7428.6 227.14 .00117 14.17 115.33
51.0 296.4 379.9 0.9944 7468.4 231.16 .00118 14.27 114.73
51.5 297.9 381.9 1.0118 7507.4 235.22 .00119 14.37 114.13
52.0 299.4 383.9 1.0293 7545.5 239.29 .00120 14.47 113.53
52.5 300.9 385.8 1.0470 7582.7 243.38 .00122 14.57 112.93
53.0 302.3 387.6 1.0646 7619.1 247.49 .00123 14.67 112.33
53.5 303.7 389.4 1.0824 7654.6 251.62 .00124 14.77 111.73
54.0 305.1 391.2 1.1003 7689.3 255.77 .00125 14.87 111.13
54.5 306.5 392.9 1.1182 7723.1 259.94 .00126 14.96 110.54
55.0 307.8 394.6 1.1362 7756.1 264.13 .00127 15.06 109.94
55.5 309.0 396.2 1.1543 7788.2 268.34 .00128 15.15 109.35
56.0 310.3 397.8 1.1725 7819.4 272.56 .00130 15.24 108.76
56.5 311.5 399.3 1.1907 7849.7 276.80 .00131 15.34 108.16
57.0 312.7 400.8 1.2090 7879.2 281.05 .00132 15.43 107.57
57.5 313.8 402.3 1.2274 7907.8 285.32 .00133 15.52 106.98
58.0 314.9 403.7 1.2458 7935.6 289.61 .00134 15.60 106.40
58.5 316.0 405.1 1.2643 7962.5 293.91 .00135 15.69 105.81
59.0 317.0 406.4 1.2829 7988.5 298.23 .00137 15.78 105.22
59.5 318.0 407.7 1.3015 8013.7 302.56 .00138 15.86 104.64
60.0 319.0 408.9 1.3202 8038.0 306.90 .00139 15.94 104.06
60.5 319.9 410.1 1.3389 8061.4 311.25 .00140 16.02 103.48
61.0 320.8 411.3 1.3577 8084.0 315.62 .00141 16.10 102.90
61.5 321.6 412.4 1.3766 8105.7 320.00 .00142 16.18 102.32
62.0 322.5 413.4 1.3955 8126.6 324.39 .00144 16.26 101.74
62.5 323.3 414.4 1.4144 8146.6 328.79 .00145 16.34 101.16
63.0 324.0 415.4 1.4334 8165.7 333.21 .00146 16.42 100.58
63.5 324.8 416.3 1.4524 8184.0 337.63 .00147 16.49 100.01
64.0 325.4 417.2 1.4715 8201.4 342.06 .00148 16.56 99.44
64.5 326.1 418.1 1.4906 8218.0 346.50 .00149 16.63 98.87

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
65.0 326.7 418.9 1.5097 8233.7 350.95 .00150 16.71 98.29
65.1 326.8 419.0 1.5135 8236.7 351.84 .00151 16.72 98.18
65.2 327.0 419.2 1.5174 8239.7 352.73 .00151 16.73 98.07
65.3 327.1 419.3 1.5212 8242.7 353.63 .00151 16.75 97.95
65.4 327.2 419.5 1.5250 8245.6 354.52 .00151 16.76 97.84
65.5 327.3 419.6 1.5289 8248.5 355.41 .00152 16.77 97.73
65.6 327.4 419.8 1.5327 8251.4 356.30 .00152 16.79 97.61
65.7 327.5 419.9 1.5366 8254.3 357.19 .00152 16.80 97.50
65.8 327.7 420.1 1.5404 8257.1 358.09 .00152 16.82 97.38
65.9 327.8 420.2 1.5442 8259.8 358.98 .00153 16.83 97.27
66.0 327.9 420.3 1.5481 8262.6 359.87 .00153 16.84 97.16
66.1 328.0 420.5 1.5519 8265.3 360.77 .00153 16.86 97.04
66.2 328.1 420.6 1.5558 8267.9 361.66 .00153 16.87 96.93
66.3 328.2 420.8 1.5596 8270.6 362.56 .00153 16.88 96.82
66.4 328.3 420.9 1.5635 8273.2 363.45 .00154 16.90 96.70
66.5 328.4 421.0 1.5673 8275.7 364.35 .00154 16.91 96.59
66.6 328.5 421.1 1.5712 8278.3 365.24 .00154 16.92 96.48
66.7 328.6 421.3 1.5750 8280.8 366.14 .00154 16.94 96.36
66.8 328.7 421.4 1.5789 8283.2 367.03 .00155 16.95 96.25
66.9 328.8 421.5 1.5827 8285.7 367.93 .00155 16.96 96.14
67.0 328.9 421.6 1.5866 8288.1 368.83 .00155 16.97 96.03
67.1 329.0 421.8 1.5905 8290.4 369.72 .00155 16.99 95.91
67.2 329.1 421.9 1.5943 8292.8 370.62 .00156 17.00 95.80
67.3 329.2 422.0 1.5982 8295.1 371.52 .00156 17.01 95.69
67.4 329.2 422.1 1.6020 8297.3 372.41 .00156 17.03 95.57
67.5 329.3 422.2 1.6059 8299.6 373.31 .00156 17.04 95.46
67.6 329.4 422.3 1.6097 8301.8 374.21 .00156 17.05 95.35
67.7 329.5 422.4 1.6136 8303.9 375.11 .00157 17.06 95.24
67.8 329.6 422.6 1.6175 8306.1 376.01 .00157 17.08 95.12
67.9 329.7 422.7 1.6213 8308.2 376.90 .00157 17.09 95.01
68.0 329.8 422.8 1.6252 8310.2 377.80 .00157 17.10 94.90
68.1 329.8 422.9 1.6291 8312.3 378.70 .00158 17.11 94.79
68.2 329.9 423.0 1.6329 8314.3 379.60 .00158 17.13 94.67
68.3 330.0 423.1 1.6368 8316.2 380.50 .00158 17.14 94.56
68.4 330.1 423.2 1.6407 8318.2 381.40 .00158 17.15 94.45
68.5 330.2 423.3 1.6445 8320.0 382.30 .00159 17.16 94.34
68.6 330.2 423.4 1.6484 8321.9 383.20 .00159 17.18 94.22
68.7 330.3 423.5 1.6523 8323.7 384.10 .00159 17.19 94.11
68.8 330.4 423.5 1.6562 8325.5 385.00 .00159 17.20 94.00
68.9 330.4 423.6 1.6600 8327.3 385.90 .00159 17.21 93.89
69.0 330.5 423.7 1.6639 8329.0 386.80 .00160 17.22 93.78
69.1 330.6 423.8 1.6678 8330.7 387.70 .00160 17.24 93.66
69.2 330.6 423.9 1.6717 8332.4 388.60 .00160 17.25 93.55
69.3 330.7 424.0 1.6755 8334.0 389.50 .00160 17.26 93.44
69.4 330.8 424.1 1.6794 8335.6 390.40 .00161 17.27 93.33
69.5 330.8 424.1 1.6833 8337.2 391.31 .00161 17.28 93.22
69.6 330.9 424.2 1.6872 8338.7 392.21 .00161 17.29 93.11
69.7 331.0 424.3 1.6910 8340.2 393.11 .00161 17.31 92.99
69.8 331.0 424.4 1.6949 8341.7 394.01 .00162 17.32 92.88
69.9 331.1 424.4 1.6988 8343.1 394.91 .00162 17.33 92.77
70.0 331.1 424.5 1.7027 8344.5 395.81 .00162 17.34 92.66
70.1 331.2 424.6 1.7066 8345.9 396.72 .00162 17.35 92.55
70.2 331.2 424.7 1.7105 8347.2 397.62 .00162 17.36 92.44
70.3 331.3 424.7 1.7143 8348.5 398.52 .00163 17.37 92.33
70.4 331.3 424.8 1.7182 8349.8 399.42 .00163 17.38 92.22
70.5 331.4 424.8 1.7221 8351.1 400.33 .00163 17.40 92.10
70.6 331.4 424.9 1.7260 8352.3 401.23 .00163 17.41 91.99
70.7 331.5 425.0 1.7299 8353.4 402.13 .00164 17.42 91.88
70.8 331.5 425.0 1.7338 8354.6 403.04 .00164 17.43 91.77
70.9 331.6 425.1 1.7376 8355.7 403.94 .00164 17.44 91.66
71.0 331.6 425.1 1.7415 8356.7 404.84 .00164 17.45 91.55
71.1 331.6 425.2 1.7454 8357.8 405.75 .00165 17.46 91.44
71.2 331.7 425.2 1.7493 8358.8 406.65 .00165 17.47 91.33
71.3 331.7 425.3 1.7532 8359.8 407.55 .00165 17.48 91.22
71.4 331.8 425.3 1.7571 8360.7 408.46 .00165 17.49 91.11
71.5 331.8 425.4 1.7610 8361.6 409.36 .00166 17.50 91.00
71.6 331.8 425.4 1.7649 8362.5 410.27 .00166 17.51 90.89
71.7 331.9 425.5 1.7687 8363.4 411.17 .00166 17.53 90.78
71.8 331.9 425.5 1.7726 8364.2 412.07 .00166 17.54 90.66
71.9 331.9 425.6 1.7765 8365.0 412.98 .00166 17.55 90.55
72.0 332.0 425.6 1.7804 8365.7 413.88 .00167 17.56 90.44
72.1 332.0 425.6 1.7843 8366.4 414.79 .00167 17.57 90.33
72.2 332.0 425.7 1.7882 8367.1 415.69 .00167 17.58 90.22
72.3 332.0 425.7 1.7921 8367.8 416.60 .00167 17.59 90.11
72.4 332.1 425.7 1.7960 8368.4 417.50 .00168 17.60 90.00
72.5 332.1 425.8 1.7999 8369.0 418.40 .00168 17.61 89.89

Crank Head Piston Piston Piston Volume Crank Rod-to- Rod-to-
Angle CFM @ CFM @ Depth Speed CC per Rotate Bore Crank
Degree 28 in. 28 in. inches Ft/Min degree TimeSec Angle Angle
72.6 332.1 425.8 1.8038 8369.5 419.31 .00168 17.62 89.78
72.7 332.1 425.8 1.8077 8370.0 420.21 .00168 17.63 89.67
72.8 332.2 425.8 1.8115 8370.5 421.12 .00169 17.64 89.56
72.9 332.2 425.9 1.8154 8371.0 422.02 .00169 17.65 89.45
73.0 332.2 425.9 1.8193 8371.4 422.93 .00169 17.66 89.34
73.1 332.2 425.9 1.8232 8371.8 423.83 .00169 17.67 89.23
73.2 332.2 425.9 1.8271 8372.2 424.74 .00169 17.68 89.12
73.3 332.2 425.9 1.8310 8372.5 425.64 .00170 17.69 89.01
73.4 332.2 426.0 1.8349 8372.8 426.55 .00170 17.69 88.91
73.5 332.3 426.0 1.8388 8373.1 427.45 .00170 17.70 88.80
73.6 332.3 426.0 1.8427 8373.3 428.36 .00170 17.71 88.69
73.7 332.3 426.0 1.8466 8373.5 429.26 .00171 17.72 88.58
73.8 332.3 426.0 1.8505 8373.7 430.17 .00171 17.73 88.47
73.9 332.3 426.0 1.8544 8373.8 431.07 .00171 17.74 88.36
74.0 332.3 426.0 1.8582 8373.9 431.98 .00171 17.75 88.25
74.1 332.3 426.0 1.8621 8374.0 432.88 .00172 17.76 88.14
74.2 332.3 426.0 1.8660 8374.1 433.79 .00172 17.77 88.03
74.3 332.3 426.0 1.8699 8374.1 434.69 .00172 17.78 87.92
74.4 332.3 426.0 1.8738 8374.1 435.60 .00172 17.79 87.81
74.5 332.3 426.0 1.8777 8374.0 436.50 .00172 17.80 87.70
74.6 332.3 426.0 1.8816 8373.9 437.40 .00173 17.80 87.60
74.7 332.3 426.0 1.8855 8373.8 438.31 .00173 17.81 87.49
74.8 332.3 426.0 1.8894 8373.7 439.21 .00173 17.82 87.38
74.9 332.3 426.0 1.8933 8373.5 440.12 .00173 17.83 87.27
75.0 332.3 426.0 1.8972 8373.3 441.02 .00174 17.84 87.16
75.1 332.3 426.0 1.9011 8373.1 441.93 .00174 17.85 87.05
75.2 332.2 426.0 1.9049 8372.8 442.83 .00174 17.86 86.94
75.3 332.2 425.9 1.9088 8372.5 443.74 .00174 17.87 86.83
75.4 332.2 425.9 1.9127 8372.2 444.64 .00175 17.87 86.73
75.5 332.2 425.9 1.9166 8371.8 445.55 .00175 17.88 86.62
75.6 332.2 425.9 1.9205 8371.4 446.45 .00175 17.89 86.51
75.7 332.2 425.9 1.9244 8371.0 447.35 .00175 17.90 86.40
75.8 332.2 425.8 1.9283 8370.5 448.26 .00175 17.91 86.29
75.9 332.1 425.8 1.9322 8370.0 449.16 .00176 17.92 86.18
76.0 332.1 425.8 1.9361 8369.5 450.07 .00176 17.92 86.08
76.1 332.1 425.8 1.9400 8369.0 450.97 .00176 17.93 85.97
76.2 332.1 425.7 1.9438 8368.4 451.87 .00176 17.94 85.86
76.3 332.0 425.7 1.9477 8367.8 452.78 .00177 17.95 85.75
76.4 332.0 425.7 1.9516 8367.1 453.68 .00177 17.96 85.64
76.5 332.0 425.6 1.9555 8366.5 454.59 .00177 17.96 85.54
76.6 332.0 425.6 1.9594 8365.8 455.49 .00177 17.97 85.43
76.7 331.9 425.6 1.9633 8365.0 456.39 .00178 17.98 85.32
76.8 331.9 425.5 1.9672 8364.3 457.30 .00178 17.99 85.21
76.9 331.9 425.5 1.9711 8363.5 458.20 .00178 17.99 85.11
77.0 331.8 425.4 1.9749 8362.6 459.10 .00178 18.00 85.00
77.1 331.8 425.4 1.9788 8361.8 460.01 .00178 18.01 84.89
77.2 331.8 425.3 1.9827 8360.9 460.91 .00179 18.02 84.78
77.3 331.7 425.3 1.9866 8360.0 461.81 .00179 18.02 84.68
77.4 331.7 425.3 1.9905 8359.0 462.71 .00179 18.03 84.57
77.5 331.7 425.2 1.9944 8358.1 463.62 .00179 18.04 84.46
77.6 331.6 425.2 1.9982 8357.1 464.52 .00180 18.05 84.35
77.7 331.6 425.1 2.0021 8356.0 465.42 .00180 18.05 84.25
77.8 331.5 425.0 2.0060 8355.0 466.32 .00180 18.06 84.14
77.9 331.5 425.0 2.0099 8353.9 467.23 .00180 18.07 84.03
78.0 331.4 424.9 2.0138 8352.7 468.13 .00181 18.07 83.93
78.1 331.4 424.9 2.0176 8351.6 469.03 .00181 18.08 83.82
78.2 331.4 424.8 2.0215 8350.4 469.93 .00181 18.09 83.71
78.3 331.3 424.8 2.0254 8349.2 470.83 .00181 18.09 83.61
78.4 331.3 424.7 2.0293 8347.9 471.73 .00181 18.10 83.50
78.5 331.2 424.6 2.0331 8346.6 472.63 .00182 18.11 83.39
78.6 331.2 424.6 2.0370 8345.3 473.54 .00182 18.11 83.29
78.7 331.1 424.5 2.0409 8344.0 474.44 .00182 18.12 83.18
78.8 331.0 424.4 2.0448 8342.6 475.34 .00182 18.13 83.07
78.9 331.0 424.3 2.0486 8341.2 476.24 .00183 18.13 82.97
79.0 330.9 424.3 2.0525 8339.8 477.14 .00183 18.14 82.86
79.1 330.9 424.2 2.0564 8338.3 478.04 .00183 18.15 82.75
79.2 330.8 424.1 2.0603 8336.8 478.94 .00183 18.15 82.65
79.3 330.8 424.0 2.0641 8335.3 479.84 .00184 18.16 82.54
79.4 330.7 424.0 2.0680 8333.8 480.74 .00184 18.16 82.44
79.5 330.6 423.9 2.0719 8332.2 481.64 .00184 18.17 82.33
79.6 330.6 423.8 2.0757 8330.6 482.54 .00184 18.18 82.22
79.7 330.5 423.7 2.0796 8328.9 483.43 .00184 18.18 82.12
79.8 330.4 423.6 2.0835 8327.3 484.33 .00185 18.19 82.01
79.9 330.4 423.6 2.0873 8325.6 485.23 .00185 18.19 81.91
80.0 330.3 423.5 2.0912 8323.9 486.13 .00185 18.20 81.80
 
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